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Anxiety Symptoms

Anxiety is a common mental health condition characterized by feelings of unease, worry, and fear. It affects over 40 million adults in the United States each year and can significantly impact one's quality of life. The symptoms of anxiety range from psychological to physical, disrupting both mental and physical well-being.

image of 9 small images showing symptoms of anxiety eg faster heart rate, chest pain etc
Anxiety Symptoms

Understanding Anxiety Symptoms: An In-Depth Guide to Fear, Worry, and Unease

Understanding Common Psychological and Physical Symptoms

worried woman sitting alone holding her head

Some of the most common psychological symptoms associated with anxiety include:

  • Excessive and persistent worrying
  • Inability to relax or calm the mind
  • Intrusive negative thoughts
  • Feeling tense or on edge

On the physical side, common symptoms include:

  • Increased heart rate and rapid breathing
  • Trembling and muscle tension
  • Headaches
  • Nausea

Both the psychological and physical symptoms can range in severity, from manageable to debilitating depending on the type of anxiety disorder.

Impact on Daily Life and Well-Being

When anxiety symptoms go unchecked, they can significantly impact one's ability to function and overall quality of life. Anxiety often leads individuals to avoid situations or environments that trigger their symptoms. For example, someone with social anxiety may turn down invites to social gatherings to avoid the unease they feel around groups. The persistent worry and tension associated with anxiety can also greatly reduce one's ability to concentrate, sleep soundly, and maintain healthy relationships. Left untreated, anxiety takes an immense toll both mentally and physically. Understanding the common symptoms is the first step to getting the proper care and support to manage anxiety conditions.

Psychological Symptoms of Anxiety

Anxiety can manifest in a variety of psychological symptoms that disrupt daily functioning. Two of the most prominent psychological manifestations are excessive fear and panic. Individuals suffering from anxiety disorders often experience sudden, intense feelings of fear, dread, and panic that arise in the absence of true danger. These panic attacks can be debilitating, causing rapid heartbeat, trembling, sweating, and a feeling of impending doom. Even outside specific panic episodes, individuals with anxiety tend to be in a constant state of tension, unable to relax or calm their worried thoughts.

Excessive Fear and Panic


The most defining characteristic of anxiety disorders is excessive, irrational fear and panic out of proportion to the actual threat or trigger. Rather than being specific phobias, anxiety often manifests as a general state of heightened arousal and vigilance. Individuals may react with panic to situations that should not warrant such an extreme reaction. These panic responses can include rapid breathing, racing thoughts, pounding heart, nausea, dizziness and more. Even outside of acute panic episodes, anxious individuals are prone to imagining catastrophic outcomes, which maintains a background sense of dread and hypervigilance.

Inability to Relax and Persistent Worrying


In addition to specific panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by the inability to relax combined with incessant worrying and rumination. Anxious individuals often have persistent negative thoughts, imagining worst-case scenarios that fuel their fears. They may overthink before taking action, becoming overwhelmed by all the things that might go wrong. This constant state of tension makes it difficult to concentrate, interrupt sleep, and prevent enjoyment of life. Learning to counteract negative thought loops and tolerate uncertainty through counseling and lifestyle changes is essential to overcoming this core psychological symptom.

Physical Symptoms of Anxiety

Anxiety can manifest physically in a variety of ways. The most common physical symptoms of anxiety include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and sweating. When we feel anxious, our sympathetic nervous system activates, triggering our body's "fight or flight" response. This causes physiological changes like a racing pulse and shortness of breath as the body prepares to respond to perceived danger.

Increased Heart Rate


During anxiety, adrenaline is released, making the heart beat faster to pump more oxygen to the muscles and vital organs. While a heightened heart rate is a normal response to stress, people with anxiety often experience persistent tachycardia well beyond what the situation calls for. This can feel frightening and uncomfortable. Learning relaxation techniques like deep breathing can help lower heart rate.

Rapid, Shallow Breathing


Anxious people tend to breathe faster in an attempt to take in more oxygen. However, this often backfires. Shallow, rapid breaths actually reduce oxygen intake and leave the body tense. To combat this, practicing pursed lip breathing and belly breathing helps people tap into the parasympathetic nervous system to induce calm. Taking fuller, slower breaths signals the brain that there is no real danger.


Sweating is another common physiological sign of anxiety. The sweat glands are stimulated along with other fight-or-flight responses. While sweating helps cool the body, excessive sweating due to anxiety can be embarrassing and uncomfortable. Using clinical strength antiperspirant, wearing breathable fabrics, and remaining in air-conditioned spaces can help manage anxiety sweats.

Trembling and Muscle Tension

Anxious individuals may also experience trembling, twitching, or muscle tension. Adrenaline causes the muscles to tense up, ready for action. This leads to stiffness, soreness, and shaking. Relaxation techniques like progressive muscle relaxation help relieve tension. Gently tensing and releasing each muscle group sends signals to the brain to unwind. Massage and warm baths also loosen muscles.


Many people with anxiety struggle to fall or stay asleep. The persistent worry and rumination of anxiety makes it difficult to calm the mind. The physical symptoms like increased heart rate and muscle tension also interfere with sleep. Developing strong sleep hygiene by avoiding screens before bed, establishing a nightly routine, and managing worries through journaling can pave the way for better rest. By understanding the common physical symptoms of anxiety, individuals can better manage their experience. Learning to tap into the parasympathetic nervous system through breathing, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle changes empowers people to minimize anxiety's physical effects.

Social Anxiety Symptoms

Social anxiety disorder is characterized by an intense fear of social situations. Those suffering from social anxiety worry about being negatively judged or embarrassed in front of others. As a result, they often avoid social events and interactions, leading to isolation and loneliness.

Fear of Negative Judgment

The core symptom of social anxiety is an extreme fear of being judged negatively by others. Sufferers become incredibly self-conscious in social settings, convinced that everyone is critically evaluating their appearance, behavior, and conversation skills. This makes even simple things like eating, drinking, or writing in front of people nerve-wracking experiences.

Avoidance of Social Situations

To cope with their fears of embarrassment or ridicule, those with social anxiety work hard to avoid anxiety-provoking social situations. They may turn down invitations, dodge work functions, or find excuses not to participate in activities or outings. While avoidance provides temporary relief, it often leads to isolation, loneliness, and anger at oneself for missing out.

Impact on Relationships


By continually avoiding social interaction, those with social anxiety miss opportunities to develop meaningful connections and relationships. Their anxiety may also come across as disinterest or standoffishness, causing others to stop inviting them places. The end result is often extreme isolation, impacting both platonic and romantic relationships.

Difficulty Functioning

In severe cases of social anxiety, basic tasks like working, going to school, or running errands become difficult due to the need to interact with others. Sufferers may underperform at work or school, call in sick frequently, or rely heavily on online shopping and food delivery to avoid going out in public.

Agoraphobia Symptoms

Agoraphobia is characterized by an intense fear of open spaces, crowds, and public places. Individuals with agoraphobia often experience panic attacks or severe anxiety when faced with situations that make them feel trapped, helpless, or embarrassed. As a result, they go to great lengths to avoid leaving places where they feel safe, such as their home.

Fear of Open Spaces, Crowds, and Public Places

The core symptom of agoraphobia is an overwhelming fear of being in situations from which escape would be difficult or help unavailable if a panic attack were to occur. This includes places like:

  • Public transportation (buses, trains, planes)
  • Open spaces (parks, bridges, parking lots)
  • Enclosed spaces (stores, theaters, restaurants)
  • Crowds and waiting in lines

Being in these situations creates intense anxiety and panic because the individual feels trapped, unable to get help or easily flee if needed. This severe distress motivates avoidance of the feared situations.

Difficulty Leaving Safe Spaces


As the fear and avoidance grow, many individuals with agoraphobia start restricting their range, eventually not leaving home at all due to thinking something catastrophic could happen. This severely limits their ability to engage in normal daily activities like:

  1. Going to work or school
  2. Shopping for groceries and necessities
  3. Attending appointments or running errands
  4. Getting together with friends

The isolation and loss of independence can be extremely detrimental to the individual's quality of life, relationships, and emotional well-being. Treatment is essential to help overcome agoraphobia and regain freedom of movement.

Generalised Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry and apprehension about everyday life events and activities. People with GAD often anticipate disaster and feel overly concerned about health, family, work, or financial issues, even when there is little reason to worry. These persistent worries and tension make it extremely difficult to concentrate and make decisions.

Excessive, Uncontrollable Worry

The hallmark symptom of GAD is excessive and persistent worry about multiple topics, events, or activities. The worry is out of proportion to the actual circumstances and causes significant distress and impairment. People with GAD may worry excessively about:

  • Health and the health of loved ones
  • Money and finances
  • Work or school performance
  • Family issues
  • Being on time and meeting deadlines
  • Disasters or tragic events

The worrying is often unrealistic, but feels uncontrollable, making it difficult to concentrate on tasks or make decisions. People with GAD often seek reassurance about their worries, but this provides only temporary relief.

Difficulty Concentrating

Because the excessive worry feels unmanageable, people with GAD often have accompanying difficulty concentrating. They may struggle to focus during work or school activities. Decision-making can also feel paralyzing or impossible because their minds are preoccupied by their anxious thoughts. As a result, people with GAD may procrastinate on tasks or avoid making choices altogether to minimize stress.

In addition, GAD often causes mental confusion, racing thoughts, irritability, muscle tension, headaches, and insomnia - all of which can further exacerbate concentration challenges. The constant state of worry makes it very difficult to give full attention to the present moment.

Impact on Emotional Well-Being


The constant state of worry, apprehension, and tension has significant effects on emotional health and well-being. Many people with GAD feel "on edge" most of the time. They may have difficulty controlling their anxiety and be quick to anger or cry. GAD commonly causes feelings of dread, restlessness, fatigue, nausea, and muscle tension. The emotional impact can be draining and profoundly affect quality of life.

Impact on Cognitive Functioning

In addition to concentration challenges, GAD affects cognitive abilities like memory and decision-making. The excessive worrying can be mentally taxing, and people with GAD often struggle with recalling details or making even minor decisions. Mental confusion is also common, making it difficult to think clearly, problem-solve, or focus thoughts. Everyday cognitive tasks become much more laborious due to intrusive anxious thoughts.

Panic Attack Symptoms

Panic attacks are sudden and intense episodes of fear, anxiety, and physical symptoms that can leave an individual feeling terrified and powerless. The most prominent symptoms of a panic attack include chest pain, heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, dizziness, numbness or tingling, chills, hot flashes, nausea, and an impending sense of doom.

Sudden Episodes of Intense Fear

During a panic attack, an individual experiences an abrupt and overwhelming surge of anxiety, often without any apparent trigger. This leads to strong physical sensations of fear and terror that peak within minutes. People having a panic attack may feel like they are losing control, going crazy, having a heart attack, or even dying. The intensity of panic attacks can vary, but even milder cases cause significant distress.

Physical Symptoms Like Chest Pain, Sweating, and Dizziness

In addition to sudden fear and anxiety, panic attacks involve various physical symptoms, including:

  • Chest pain or tightness
  • Heart palpitations and rapid heartbeat
  • Sweating and chills
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Shortness of breath and feelings of smothering
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness, and faintness
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands and fingers

These physical symptoms are caused by the body's fight-or-flight response kicking into high gear during a panic attack. The intensity of the physical symptoms adds to the terror of the experience.

The Debilitating Impact of Panic Attacks

Panic attacks can be profoundly debilitating for those suffering from them. The experience is mentally and emotionally draining, often leaving people shaken for hours or days afterwards. Recurrent and unexpected panic attacks take a significant toll, causing some people to develop agoraphobia or become homebound out of fear. The anxiety about when another attack may strike can greatly restrict daily activities and quality of life. Getting effective treatment is important for managing panic disorder.

Phobia Symptoms

Phobias are characterized by an intense, irrational fear of specific things or situations. Common phobias include fears of heights, animals, blood, needles, flying, and more. The symptoms of phobias can range from mild unease to full-blown panic attacks when confronted with the source of fear.

Intense, Irrational Fear

The hallmark symptom of phobias is an excessive, unreasonable fear reaction. This fear persists even when there is no actual danger present. For example, someone with a phobia of snakes may experience intense fear, racing heart rate, nausea, and panic symptoms simply from seeing a photo or video of a snake. The fear is disconnected from any real threat.

Avoidance of Phobic Stimuli

Another key symptom is avoidance behavior. People with phobias will go to great lengths to avoid encountering the object or situation they fear. For instance, someone with a fear of flying may drive long distances instead of flying to avoid triggering their phobia symptoms. This avoidance can significantly disrupt daily activities.

Impact on Daily Life

Depending on the specific phobia, symptoms can interfere with work, school, relationships, and overall quality of life. For example, a needle phobia may cause someone to avoid doctor visits and medical procedures, while a social phobia makes it hard to maintain friendships or attend events. Phobias that involve the outdoors, animals, or driving can make it difficult to engage in routine errands and tasks.

Physical Symptoms

In addition to psychological fear, phobias often produce physical anxiety symptoms like:

  • Racing heart
  • Chest tightness
  • Trembling
  • Sweating
  • Nausea

These sensations feed the mental anxiety in a cycle that intensifies panic. Without treatment, phobias tend to persist for years or a lifetime. Overcoming them requires gradual exposure therapy and anxiety management strategies.

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Regulating Anxiety

The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in regulating anxiety levels in the body. This system consists of cannabinoid receptors found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. When the body produces endocannabinoids, they bind to these receptors and influence the release of neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA.

Effects on Serotonin

Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation. Lower serotonin levels are associated with increased anxiety. The endocannabinoid system regulates serotonin release, with some evidence showing that THC and CBD can boost serotonin levels. By modulating serotonin, the endocannabinoid system can help mitigate anxiety symptoms induced by low serotonin.

Effects on GABA

GABA is the brain's primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning it reduces neuronal activity and promotes calm. Many anti-anxiety medications work by increasing GABA activity. Research shows THC amplifies GABA release while CBD stimulates receptors associated with GABA uptake. Through these effects, the endocannabinoid system can quiet overactive neurons and reduce anxiety.

Anxiety Treatment Potential

Given the endocannabinoid system's role in regulating neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA that control mood and relaxation, manipulating this system may hold promise for treating anxiety. Research shows CBD can lower anxiety levels by binding to cannabinoid receptors and altering endocannabinoid signaling. Further studies are needed, but regulating the endocannabinoid system provides a novel target for anxiety interventions. 

Treatment Approaches for Managing Anxiety

There are several evidence-based treatment approaches that can help individuals manage anxiety symptoms. The most common methods include psychotherapy, medications, and lifestyle changes.

The Role of Therapy

Psychotherapy, especially cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), has been shown to be highly effective for treating anxiety. CBT helps people identify and change negative thought patterns that contribute to anxiety. Other therapeutic approaches like acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) can also teach coping strategies.

In therapy, individuals learn to challenge irrational fears, build emotional resilience, and make behavioral changes to manage anxiety triggers. Developing healthy thinking habits is key.


Antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications may help relieve anxiety symptoms. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed.

While medications can provide short-term relief, they often need to be combined with psychotherapy for long-term anxiety management. Their side effects should also be closely monitored.

Lifestyle Changes

Adjusting daily habits can reduce anxiety vulnerability. Getting regular exercise, enough sleep, a healthy diet, and mindfulness practices helps regulate brain chemistry linked to anxiety.

Avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and recreational drugs can also minimize anxiety triggers. Building a strong social support system makes a difference too.

The Potential of CBD

Early research suggests CBD, a cannabis-derived compound, may help reduce anxiety by interacting with serotonin and GABA receptors involved in mood regulation. More studies are still needed.

While not definitive, initial evidence provides hope that CBD could become an additional option for managing anxiety alongside traditional treatments.

Regulating the endocannabinoid system may open up new possibilities for supporting individuals struggling with anxiety disorders.

. By targeting the endocannabinoid system, researchers may be able to develop new interventions for anxiety that could potentially be more effective and have fewer side effects than current treatments.

Overall, the treatment approaches for managing anxiety include psychotherapy, medications, and lifestyle changes. Psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is highly effective in helping individuals identify and change negative thought patterns that contribute to anxiety. Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications can provide short-term relief, but are often combined with psychotherapy for long-term management. Lifestyle changes, such as exercise, sleep, diet, and mindfulness practices, can also help regulate brain chemistry linked to anxiety. Additionally, avoiding triggers like caffeine, alcohol, and recreational drugs, as well as building a strong social support system, can make a difference in managing anxiety.

CBD, a compound derived from cannabis, has shown potential in reducing anxiety by interacting with serotonin and GABA receptors involved in mood regulation. While more research is needed, early evidence suggests that CBD could become an additional option for managing anxiety alongside traditional treatments. Regulating the endocannabinoid system may provide new possibilities for supporting individuals struggling with anxiety disorders.


Anxiety can be a difficult condition to manage, but it is important to remember that help and support are available. Taking the time to recognize the symptoms of anxiety and taking steps to seek professional treatment can help individuals create a more positive outlook and improve their overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with anxiety, please reach out for help today.